The main types of plaster As a building material and as a type of finishing, plaster compositions have been known since antiquity. The ancient Latin name is stuk, stucco has survived to our time. Plastering compositions are: for interior decoration; for plastering facades; universal application. Further we will talk about plaster for interior wall decoration.
Finishing cladding solutions are:
Conventional compounds are used for rough plastering of walls and ceilings, and for grouting joints. Depending on the quality of the surface, the plaster finish is: high-quality – wall decoration ready for painting or wallpapering, carried out by spraying, multi-layer application of primer and a final cover; improved – for utility rooms in residential buildings, as well as, for rough finishing, consists of three layers – spray, soil (main layer), cover, leveled with a rule and rubbed with a trowel; simple plaster, consisting of two layers – spray and soil, is applied without hanging, leveled with a trowel, used for plastering basements, warehouses, utility rooms.
Decorative compositions, differing in texture and color, are used for finishing, which does not need wallpaper, cladding or painting. Special plasters are used to perform specific tasks. For example, they are used for additional thermal insulation of an apartment (heat-insulating plaster), protection from ionizing rays of medical equipment (barite plaster), treatment of damp house walls (sanitizing).
The composition of plaster solutions includes binders, constituting the base, fillers, water (or solvent), as well as functional additives. Since the main components of plaster compounds are binders, after curing they become similar to stone or plastic, plaster compounds are classified according to the type of base. Next, consider the usual cement plasters. From the name it is clear that the main binder of this type is cement. The simplest plaster composition is cement-sand. The finish is durable, frost-resistant, inexpensive. Suitable for indoor and outdoor plastering work. Manual or mechanical application is possible.
It is commercially available in the form of dry mixes (CC), which include modifying additives. The solution can be prepared by hand yourself. Cement-lime lime was used as a plastering agent long before the invention of cement. Lime plaster mortars are highly plastic. Using this quality, lime is used as an additional binder in cement-lime mortars.
Manual application or mechanized plastering is possible. The composition is prepared independently, or a ready-made dry plaster mixture is purchased. It is used for rough and decorative finishes. Suitable for finishing wooden surfaces.
Gypsum Natural material, easy to lay, plastic. More expensive than previous plaster mixes, but it has its own advantages. High-quality plaster of walls of rooms with normal humidity is performed using gypsum compounds. Decorative CCs are also produced. Manual and mechanized application. Good for aerated concrete. Clay Natural astringent, used not only in rural houses.
Clay is environmentally friendly, contributes to maintaining a favorable microclimate in the house. Clay plaster can be applied by hand. There is practically no waste. Even dry mortar can be soaked again, mixed and applied to the substrate. Repairable. Decorative This type of plastering materials is the most diverse. CC and ready-made solutions are produced by many companies. Produced on mineral, acrylic, silicate, silicone, polymer bases. Distinguish between textured, structural, colored, pebble, terrazite compositions.